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Please follow the specific guidelines for this essay. I have provided you with my main claim, sub claims, and a start of an introduction. The sources will be posted down below. Please follow what I did to give you a head start. Please have perfect great in text citation. Follow the instructions and you should be fine.

Main Claim: Drug Abuse and the “war on drugs” is not to blame for America’s high incarnation rate considering that there are other factors contributing even higher towards the increasing prison population.

Sub claim 1: Segregation by income is evident in the U.S is a major contributor towards the increasing prison population in the country

Evidence 1: Wilson (2015) argues that population by income intensifies segregation by race resulting in overpopulated disadvantaged black neighborhoods that are exposed to violent crime (1). This is evidence that income segregation is the main cause of crime in segregated regions rather than drug abuse.

Evidence 2: Most crime happens to be intra-racial; hence, black victims are suffering disproportionally at the black criminals’ hands (Bibas, 3). Violent crime is not caused by drug abuse but segregation, which makes it common to the race.

Conclusion: segregation is a major cause of violent crime. This is contrary to the belief that drug use is the main cause of violent crime that results in the increased prison population.

Sub Claim 2: the admission of drug offenders in U.S prisons has reduced over time, however, the prison population has still continued to increase.

Evidence 1: drug offense was high from 1980 to1990, however, the drug offenders’ population had reduced from 22% to 17% in 1990 when a huge number of the prisoners were not drug offenders (Rothwell, 1).

Evidence2:between 1980 and 2009, incarcerations increased by 1086200 prisoners and among these, 551 thousand were violent offenders, 171,900 were property offenders while only 223,000 were drug offenders (Pfaff).

Conclusion: as drug offenders continue to reduce, the prison population still increases. This means that other groups of offenders are contributing majorly towards prison overcrowding.

Sub claim 3: the continuing racial discrimination is a major cause of massive incarceration in the United States Prisons

Evidence 1: according to Lawyer Michele Alexander, mass incarceration is a strikingly comprehensive as well as well-concealed radicalized social control system that operates like Jim Crow where the discriminated group is excluded from enjoying their rights: jobs, voting, public benefits, and education among other rights (Bibas, 2).

Evidence 2: Marc Schindler describes Sessions idea of “War against Drugs” as a political idea to remove brown and black people from their communities (Berke, 2).

Conclusion: Racial discrimination contributes towards is a major contributor to mass incarceration where some races have to be deprived of their rights.

Sub claim 4: the other major contributor to mass incarceration is poor law enforcement in America, which is meant to strengthen the white supremacy

Evidence1: law enforcement in the United States is a white supremacy’s tool for oppressing blacks (Bibas, 3), which victimizes blacks making them prisoners

Evidence2: the recurrent acts police brutality against African Americans has raised the public consciousness ( Wilson, 3).

Conclusion: some communities are being hunted by law enforcement for no good reason. African Americans who are arrested and sentenced inappropriately increase prison population too.

Counter Argument: according to Liberals, mass incarceration has been caused by the “War on Drugs” specifically long sentences for drug crimes that are nonviolent in nature (Bibas, 1).

Rebuttal:reduction of drug offenders admission has failed to reduce the high population of prisoners in the country.


America is a world leader in different things including economy, technology, military, and many other things. Unfortunately, the nation is also a world leader in terms of a huge prison population. The high rate of incarceration in America is alarming. The nation is a home for 20 percent of the world population; however, it holds almost a quarter of all the prisoners in the world. The country has faced a quick prison population increase since the 1970s at a rate that is higher than the general population growth. Many blame drug use as the key reason for the growing prison population. However, many people have a different view of the situation and feel that there are other things contributing to the fact, other than the war on drugs. Drug Abuse and the “war on drugs” is not to blame for America’s high incarnation rate considering that there are other factors contributing even higher towards the increasing prison population.

Essay Two Draft Instructions

General Requirements

Essay Two is a 4-6 page MLA-formatted, argumentative essay that will allow you to think about a focused aspect of the problem of mass incarceration in the US.

Page Count: A paper with a minimum count of four pages means that the fourth page should be completely full to the bottom margin.

MLA Formatted: You all have strong and accurate MLA essay templates. GREAT. Cross that off the list. Now, focus on correctly formatting MLA in-text citations by using the " In-Text Citation Cheat Sheet "; adding citations after summaries, paraphrases, and direct quotations; placing commas and periods inside quotation marks when they appear next to each other; and using ellipses when you eliminate words in direct quotations but ONLY in the middle of passages, not at the beginning or end.

Source Requirements

This essay requires you to use a minimum of THREE different sources from those I've provided and that you'll find, below.

Each body paragraph must include at least TWO pieces of evidence from different texts. This is because you need more than one writer weighing in on each important subclaim.

Contents of Essay

Introduction: Introductions should begin with a Powerful Essay Opener , include necessary context for the debate, logically lead to the main claim providing all necessary information, and should conclude with your main claim.

Main Claim: In argumentative essays, you defend focused main claims. They must be arguable (meaning they must be relevant to the prompt, sufficiently focused given the page-count limitation, and that others would disagree with them).

Body Paragraphs:

Subclaims: Each body paragraph must begin with an arguable subclaim that helps to logically and completely support the main claim. Each subclaim must by supported evidence from at least two of our authors; properly embedded paraphrases and quotations with signal phrases, citations, and explanation; and must link back to the main claim.

Counterargument/Rebuttal: Argumentative essays must include counterarguments (opposing points of view from actual, not imaginary, authors) and your rebuttal. You can devote a whole paragraph to a counterargument and rebuttal or address one or more counterarguments/rebuttals within one or more body paragraphs, as long as each body paragraph is focused on one point. At least one counterargument and rebuttal is required in all argumentative essays.

Conclusion: Your paper should include a conclusion appropriate to a short paper, meaning that, although it should relate back to the main claim, it should not recap what's already been said. Your reader can easily remember what you just said if it was clear. Usually phrases like, "In conclusion," suggest that an unnecessary recap is coming, so avoid this, too. Instead, use your conclusion to build (very closely) upon what's already been stated and conclude your essay by giving the reader something to think about that relates to the main claim.

Works Cited Page: Woo hoo! No Works Cited page is required if you're using texts and/or videos I've supplied.

CAUTION - What Not to Include: A Fatal Contradiction: Often students write to the last page of their essay and then argue something that contradicts what they just spent pages defending. If you change your position through the writing process, that's okay. But when that happens, you must go back and revise your paper from the beginning. OR, you may concede an idea that seems to counter your position. This is okay, too. You can agree with parts of a debate and disagree with others. You just have to make sure that if you're contradicting something you've already said, you go back and amend those contradictory statements. Neglecting to deal with these contradictions undermines the whole paper.

Essential Skills to Focus On:

  • Creating Strong Essay Introductions: Use the techniques we've been working on to accomplish this.
  • Outlining to build a logical and complete sequence from the main claim through the subclaims. To test: Once you've drafted your essay, read only your main claim and the first sentence of each body paragraph. Do you get a complete and logical understanding of your argument from these? If not, how might you revise to accomplish this?
  • Creating accurate MLA formatting and in-text citations every time: Practice picking up the " In-Text Citation Cheat Sheet " every time you create a citation. Don't practice incorrect formatting.
  • Avoiding logical fallacies: Use the " Logical Fallacy Cheat Sheet " to look for fallacies in our source texts and in your essay.
  • Eliminating You: Do a search to make sure that there are no instances of "you" in your essay.
  • Introducing Authors: Keep practicing succinctly and smoothly introducing key authors.
  • According to Ava DuVernay, Academy Award nominated director of the documentary 13TH, "Xxxx" (00:00:00).

    Boom! Done. Don't carry on but don't leave us guessing who your key sources are either.

    • Properly embedding summaries, paraphrases, and quotations with rhetorically accurate signal phrases, accurate in-text citations, and explanation.
      • Be sure that quotations flow grammatically with the signal phrases. Eliminate unnecessary words from the quotation, focusing only on the points relevant to your essay. Use ellipses when eliminating words in the middle of a passage. When making slight changes for capitalization or grammatical flow, use [square brackets].
      • Never end a paragraph with a quotation except in the rare instance you want to conclude a whole essay with a very powerful and self-explanatory quotation.

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