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My topic is: The ways in which colonialism affects present day Africa

Many parts of Africa is suffering from past colonial powers. Therefore, I want to show the transitional change of how colonialism affected Africa back then compared to now. Today many parts of Africa are still trying to recover and reconstruct their country because of colonialism. Many people are unaware of the striking affects and I would like to show the contrast in my research paper. Some of the main aspects that affect Africa today as a result of colonialism are: economic, political and social aspects. These are the main aspects that will be focused on in my research.

The annotated bibliography must be 3 pages or more!


Each book or article is discussed separately. Start with the bibliographic citation (in bold), then summarize and critique the work; critique does NOT mean criticism alone; it can also be appreciation; but regardless of criticism or appreciation, give reasons for your opinions; also compare the work under consideration to other, related work

List of References: In the References (so titled, rather than Bibliography), arrange all citations in alphabetical order by author and, within author, by year of publication.This list must include all references to written sources in the text.Underline the titles of books and journals in the list of references.The titles of articles must be within quotation marks.If an author has more than one listing, it is not necessary to type the author's name several times; instead, use the notation `-----'.In the event that there are more than one volume of a work, list each volume consulted separately.In such cases, the volume number is inserted between the general title of the work, and the subtitle of the volume in question.The volume number should notbe underlined.

If reports and articles in newspapers, news magazines, and other periodical literature are used extensively in the term paper, the titles of these journals should be grouped together as periodicals as a subsection of your list of references.Within this subsection, they should be arranged alphabetically.For English-language periodical literature, the definite article should be dropped (eg., New York Times, Times(London), rather than The New York Times, or The Times).Do not drop the definite article in the case on non-English language newspapers and magazines (eg., Le Monde).

Note:Books, articles, collections, etc. are distinguished below for illustrative purposes.They should not be distinguished or grouped separately in your list of references.



Piven, Frances Fox & Richard A.Cloward (1971), Regulating the Poor, New York: Pantheon Books.

-----, (1985), The New Class War: Reagan's Attack on the Welfare State and Its Consequences, New York: Pantheon Books.


Friedmann, Harriet (1980), "Household Production and National Economy: Concepts for the Analysis of Agrarian Formations", Journal of Peasant Studies, VII, 2, Jan., 158-84.


Macleod, Roy (1987), "On Visiting the `Moving Metropolis': Reflections on the Architecture of Imperial Science", in Nathan Reingold & Marc Rothenberg, Scientific Colonialism: A Cross-Cultural Comparison, Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 217-49.

4.Multi-volume works:

Bray, Francesca (1984), Agriculture, in J.Needham, Science and Civilisation in China, VI, Biology and Biological Technology, Pt.ii, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Needham, Joseph (1956), Science and Civilisation in China, II, History of Scientific Thought, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

_____, (1971), Science and Civilisation in China, IV, Physics and Physical Technology, iii, Civil Engineering and Nautics, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

5.Institutional Authors:

United Nations Department of International Economic and Social Affairs, Statistical Office (1984), 1982 Yearbook of International Trade Statistics, I, Trade by Commodity, New York: United Nations.

6.Author Unknown:

The Making of a Peripheral Zone, (1984), London: Wellsboro.

7.Signed articles in reference works:

Bottomore, Tom (1983), "Class" in T.B.Bottomore, et.al., (eds.), A Dictionary of Marxist Thought, Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 74-77.

8.Unsigned articles in reference works:

Encyclopedia Americana(1963), s.v. "Korean War".

9.News reports in newspapers, etc.

New York Times, 15 January 1990.

10.Articles in newspapers, etc.

"Pakistani Highlanders' Defiant Note", New York Times, 11 November 1988.

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